Daily Archives: 09/13/2012

Ang Alfabeto at Ortograpiyang Filipino

Kalikasan ng Leksikal na Korpus ng Filipino
Ang ortograpiya ay ang representasyon ng mga tunog ng isang wika ng nakasulat o nakalimbag na mga simbolo tulad ng alpabeto. Bago dumating ang mga Kastila ay may sarili nang alpabeto ang mga lumad sakapuluang ito. Ito ay tinatawag na Alibata o Baybayin na may 14 katinig o konsonant at 3 patinig o vowel. Pinalitan ito ng alpabetong Romano nang dumating ang mga Kastila.
Taong 1940 o tatlong taon matapos buuin ang Wikang Pambansa o Wikang PambansaBatay sa Tagalog ayon na rin sa nasasaad sa 1935 Constitution, isinilang ang kauna-unahang ortograpiya. Binuo ni Lope K. Santos, ang Abakada (15 katinig at 5 panitig) namay 20 letra: a b k d e g h i l m n ng o p r s t u w y.
Noong Oktubre 4, 1971 o labindalawang taon matapos palitan ng pangalan Pilipino angWikang Pambansa o Wikang Pambansa Batay sa Tagalog, ipinagtibay ng Sanggunian ng Surian ng Wikang Pambansa (ngayon ay Komisyon sa Wikang Pambansa), angortograpiyang Pilipino na tinaguriang “pinayamang alpabeto” na binubuo ng 31 letra:
a bc ch d e f g h i j k l ll m n ñ ng o p q r rr s t u v w x y z
Idinagdag sa 20 letra ng Abakadaang 11 letra at degrapo mula sa Kastila:
c ch f j ll ñ q rr v x z
Sa 1973 Constitution, nasasaad ang pagdevelop at pagkakaroon ng pambansang wikangtatawaging Filipino. Sa sumunod na taon, tinawag nang Filipino ang wikang pambansa.Taong 1987 ay ipinakilala ang tinaguriang ortograpiyang Filipino na tinaguriang”makabagong alpabeto” na binubuo ng 28 letra:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ ng o p q r s t uv w x y z
Inalis ang mga degrapong ch ll at rr.
Noong 2001, muling nagkaroon ng rebisyon sa alpabetong Filipino upang tugunan ang patuloy na development at/o istandardisasyon ng sistema ng pagsulat sa Filipino. Sarebisyong ito, sinasabi na pinaluwag ang paggamit ng mga letrang c f j ñ q v x z.Ipinagagamit ang mga ito sa ispeling ng lahat ng hiram na salita anuman ang barayti nitokasama ang hindi pormal at hindi teknikal na barayti, o iyong tinatawag na karaniwangsalita. Oktubre 9, 2006 nang pansamantalang ipinatigil ito at ang ikatlong ortograpiya.
Noong Agosto 2007, inilabas ng KWF ang draft ng Ortograpiya ng Wikang Pambansa na binuo ng KWF sa pamamagitan ng serye ng mga konsultasyon sa mga guro, dalubhasa sawika, superbisor sa Filipino at sa mga larangang ito sa buong bansa noong 2007. Wala pang pinal na bersyon ng patnubay na ipinalalabas ang KWF hanggang ngayon.
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Lexical Nature of the Corpus Filipino

Orthography is the representation of sounds of a language by written or printed symbols such as the alphabet.

Before the Spaniards came alphabet is itself indigenous to the islands. It is called Alibata or Baybayin with 14 consonants and 3 vowel. The Roman alphabet replaced it when the Spaniards came.

Year 1940 or three years after integrating the national language or national language based on Tagalog as well as in terms of the 1935 Constitution, the first born orthography.

Created by Lope K. Santos, the ABC (15 consonants and 5 vowels) with 20 letters: a b k d e g h i l m n ng o p r s t u w y.

On October 4, 1971 or twelve years after the name change of the Philippine national language or national language based on Tagalog, adopted by the Council of the Institute of National Language (now National Language Commission), the Philippine orthography called “pina alphabet since ¬ “consisting of 31 letters: a bc ch d e f g h i j k l ll m n ñ ng o p q r rr s t u v w x y z. Added to the 20 letters of the ABC and the 11 letters from Spain degrapo (c ch q Ñ FJ ll rr vxz).

The 1973 Constitution, the terms of developing and gaining national language called Filipino. The following year, called the Filipino the national language. 1987 introduced the variety, Filipino orthography called called “modern alphabet” consisting of 28 letters: N of opqrstuvwxy abcdefghijklmn. Z. Degrapong removed the ch ll and rr.

In 2001, again had to Filipino alphabet revision to address the ongoing development and /or standardization of the writing system of Filipino. In this revision, the letters cfj Ñ qvx Z were used in spelling the borrowed words regardless of its varieties with no formal technical and varieties, or the so-called common words. October 9, 2006 when it was ordered to temporarily hold its revision including the third orthography.

In August 2007, released the draft of KWF Orthography National Language KWF developed through a series of consultations with teachers, language experts, supervisors in Filipino and in this field throughout the country in 2007. Under the final version of the guidelines shown the KWF has not released new guidelines until now.

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IS THERE SUCH A THING AS PERFECT HAPPINESS

IS THERE SUCH A THING as perfect happiness in the world or isn’t there? Is there some way to keep yourself alive or isn’t there? What to do, what to rely on, what to avoid, what to stick by, what to follow, what to leave alone, what to find happiness in, what to hate?

This is what the world honors: wealth, eminence, long life, a good name. This is what the world finds happiness in: a life of ease, rich food, fine clothes, beautiful sights, sweet sounds. This is what it looks down on: poverty, meanness, early death, a bad name. This is what it finds bitter: a life that knows no rest, a mouth that gets no rich food, no fine clothes for the body, no beautiful sights for the eye, no sweet sounds for the ear.

People who can’t get these things fret a great deal and are afraid – this is a stupid way to treat the body. People who are rich wear themselves out rushing around on business, piling up more wealth than they could ever use – this is a superficial way to treat the body. People who are eminent spend night and day scheming and wondering if they are doing right – this is a shoddy way to treat the body. Man lives his life in company with worry, and if he lives a long while, till he’s dull and doddering, then he has spent that much time worrying instead of dying, a bitter lot indeed! This is a callous way to treat the body.

Men of ardor are regarded by the world as good, but their goodness doesn’t succeed in keeping them alive. So I don’t know whether their goodness is really good or not. Perhaps I think it’s good – but not good enough to save their lives. Perhaps I think it’s no good – but still good enough to save the lives of others. So I say, if your loyal advice isn’t heeded, give way and do not wrangle. Tzu-hsu wrangled and lost his body. But if he hadn’t wrangled, he wouldn’t have made a name. Is there really such a thing as goodness or isn’t there?

What ordinary people do and what they find happiness in – I don’t know whether such happiness is in the end really happiness or not. I look at what ordinary people find happiness in, what they all make a mad dash for, racing around as though they couldn’t stop – they all say they’re happy with it. I’m not happy with it and I’m not unhappy with it. In the end is there really happiness or isn’t there?

I take inaction to be true happiness, but ordinary people think it is a bitter thing. I say: perfect happiness knows no happiness, perfect praise knows no praise. The world can’t decide what is right and what is wrong. And yet inaction can decide this. Perfect happiness, keeping alive – only inaction gets you close to this!

Let me try putting it this way. The inaction of Heaven is its purity, the inaction of earth is its peace. So the two inactions combine and all things are transformed and brought to birth. Wonderfully, mysteriously, there is no place they come out of. Mysteriously, wonderfully, they have no sign. Each thing minds its business and all grow up out of inaction. So I say, Heaven and earth do nothing and there is nothing that is not done. Among men, who can get hold of this inaction?

Chuang Tzu’s wife died. When Hui Tzu went to convey his condolences, he found Chuang Tzu sitting with his legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing. “You lived with her, she brought up your children and grew old,” said Hui Tzu. “It should be enough simply not to weep at her death. But pounding on a tub and singing – this is going too far, isn’t it?”

Chuang Tzu said, “You’re wrong. When she first died, do you think I didn’t grieve like anyone else? But I looked back to her beginning and the time before she was born. Not only the time before she was born, but the time before she had a body. Not only the time before she had a body, but the time before she had a spirit. In the midst of the jumble of wonder and mystery a change took place and she had a spirit. Another change and she had a body. Another change and she was born. Now there’s been another change and she’s dead. It’s just like the progression of the four seasons, spring, summer, fall, winter.

“Now she’s going to lie down peacefully in a vast room. If I were to follow after her bawling and sobbing, it would show that I don’t understand anything about fate. So I stopped.”

― Chuang Tzu (or Zhuangzi 莊子)
(XVIII, Burton)

*****

天下有至樂无有哉?有可以活身者无有哉?今奚為奚據?奚避奚處?奚就奚去?奚樂奚惡?
夫天下之所尊者,富貴壽善也;所樂者,身安厚味美服好色音聲也;所下者,貧賤夭惡也;所苦者,身不得安逸,口不得厚味,形不得美服,目不得好色,耳不得音聲。若不得者,則大憂以懼,其為形也亦愚哉!
夫富者,苦身疾作,多積財而不得盡用,其為形也亦外矣。夫貴者,夜以繼日,思慮善否,其為形也亦疏矣。人之生也,與憂俱生,壽者惽惽,久憂不死,何苦也!其為形也亦遠矣。烈士為天下見善矣,未足以活身。吾未知善之誠善邪?誠不善邪?若以為善矣,不足活身;以為不善矣,足以活人。故曰:「忠諫不聽,蹲循勿爭。」故夫子胥爭之以殘其形,不爭,名亦不成。誠有善无有哉?
今俗之所為與其所樂,吾又未知樂之果樂邪,果不樂邪?吾觀夫俗之所樂,舉羣趣者,誙誙然如將不得已,而皆曰樂者,吾未之樂也,亦未之不樂也。果有樂无有哉?吾以无為誠樂矣,又俗之所大苦也。故曰:「至樂无樂,至譽无譽。」
天下是非果未可定也。雖然,无為可以定是非。至樂活身,唯无為幾存。請嘗試言之。天无為以之清,地无為以之寧。故兩无為相合,萬物皆化生。芒乎芴乎,而无從出乎!芴乎芒乎,而无有象乎!萬物職職,皆從无為殖。故曰,天地无為也而无不為也,人也孰能得无為哉!

莊子妻死,惠子弔之,莊子則方箕踞鼓盆而歌。
惠子曰:「與人居,長子老身,死不哭亦足矣,又鼓盆而歌,不亦甚乎!」
莊子曰:「不然。是其始死也,我獨何能无概然!察其始而本无生,非徒无生也,而本无形,非徙无形也而本无氣。雜乎芒芴之間,變而有氣,氣變而有形,形變而有生。今又變而之死。是相與為春秋冬夏四時行也。人且偃然寢於巨室,而我噭噭然隨而哭之,自以為不通乎命,故止也。」

(莊子: 至樂)