(January 6, 1812 ± March 2, 1919) was a Filipino revolutionarywho became known as”Tandang Sora”(“Tandang” is derived from the Tagalog wordmatandâ,which means old) in the history of the Philippines because of her age when the PhilippineRevolution broke out in 1896 (she was already 84 at the time). She gained the titleGrand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak for her heroic contributions to Philippinehistory.In her native country, Aquino operated a store, which became a refuge for the sick andwounded revolutionaries. She fed, gave medical attention to and encouraged the revolutionarieswith motherly advice and prayers. Secret meetings of the Katipuneros (revolutionaries) were alsoheld at her house. Thus she earned the name, “Mother of the Katipunan” or revolution. When theSpaniards learned about her activities and her knowledge to the whereabouts of the Katipuneros,she was interrogated but she refused to divulge any information. She was then arrested by theGuardia Civil and was deported to the Mariana Islands.After the United States took control of the Philippines in 1898, Aquino, like other exiles,returned to Philippines until her death on March 2, 1919 at the age of 107. Her remains lie in her own backyard (now as Himlayang Pilipino Memorial Park, Quezon City).
Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio (November 14, 1875December 2, 1899) was one of the youngestgenerals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass. Because of his youth,he was called the “Boy General.”He later joined General Emilio Aguinaldo
, who had gained control of the movement, in HongKong
after the truce at Biak-na-Bato. During the Spanish American War
, Aguinaldo returned to thePhilippines and established the government of the First Philippine Republic
. He appointed del Pilarsection leader of the revolutionary forces in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. On June 1, del Pilar landed inBulacan with rifles purchased in Hong Kong, quickly laying siege on the Spanish forces in the province.When the Spaniards surrendered to del Pilar, he brought his men to Caloocan, Manila to support theother troops battling the Spaniards there. When the Philippine-American War broke-out on February 1899, del Pilar led his troops to ashort victory over Major Franklin Bell in the first phase of the Battle of Quingua on April 23, 1899, inwhich his forces repelled a cavalry charge and killed the highly respected Colonel John M.Stotsenburg,after whom Clark Air Base was originally named (Fort Stotsenburg).
María Josefa Gabriela Cariño Silang (March 19, 1731 September 29, 1763) was thewife of the Ilocano insurgent leader, Diego Silang. Following Diego’s assassination in 1763, sheled the group for four months before she was captured and executed.Born in Barangay Caniogan, Santa, Ilocos Sur, Silang was a mestiza, of Spanish andIlocano descent. She was adopted by a very wealthy businessman Tomás Millan, who latermarried her at the age of 20, but died after three years. In 1757, she re-married again, this timeto 27-year-old Ilocano insurgent leader, Diego Silang. The groups goal was to ensure anindependent Ilocos. She became one of his closest advisors, whenever the troops battle,Gabriela always went with them to give support and help with the battle, a major figure in herhusband’s collaboration with the British and the brief expulsion of Spanish officials from Vigan,Ilocos Sur during the British occupation of the Philippines.On May 28, 1763, two of her husbands close friends Miguel Vicos and Pedro Becbecbetrayed them, which resulted to Diegos demise; he was assassinated by order of royal andchurch authorities in Manila. After her husband’s death, she fled on horseback to her uncleNicolás Cariño’s residence in the mountains of Abra.Together with Cariño, and Sebatian Andaya and Manuel Flores, there she regrouped hertroops, and rallied the Tingguian community to fight. Gabrielas troops of 2000 fightersattacked the Spanish in Vigan on September 10, 1763. With a larger number of the Spanishtroops, the 6000 men strong Spanish garrison was ready, with amassing Spanish, Tagalog, andKapampangan soldiers, and Ilocano collaborators recruited from other regions to ambush herand rout her forces.
José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos y Basco (February 19, 1886 May 2, 1942) was the fifth Chief Justiceof the Supreme Court of the Philippines and served as Acting President of the Philippines duringWorld War II. He was executed by Japanese forces during the Japanese occupation of thePhilippines, He is the grandfather of Senator Jamby Madrigal. Abad Santos was born in City of San Fernando, Pampanga to Vicente Abad Santos and Toribia Basco. His brother, Pedro, wouldeventually emerge as a leading socialist leader during the Commonwealth era. In 1904, he wassent to the United States as a government pensionado. He finished a pre-law course at theSanta Clara College in Santa Clara, California; his Bachelor of Laws at Northwestern University inEvanston, Illinois; and his Masters of Laws at George Washington University in 1909. Admittedto the Philippine Bar in 1911, he served as Assistant Attorney at the Bureau of Justice from1913 to 1917 .Abad Santos then served as Chief Counsel of the President of the Philippine Senate andthe Speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1926 he went to the United States as head of the Philippine Educational Mission. He was again appointed Secretary of Justice in 1928 and re-appointed on July 1, 1931. In 1932, he became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Hebecame its Chief Justice on December 24, 1941. As part of the emergency reorganization of theCommonwealth government, Abad Santos, in his capacity as Chief Justice, was given theresponsibilities previously handled by the Secretary of Justice (the position of Secretary of Justice was abolished for the duration of the war). Abad Santos accompanied theCommonwealth government to Corregidor, where on December 30, 1941, he administered theoath of office to President Quezon and Vice-President Osmeña for the second term they’d beenelected to in November of that year. He also undertook, with Manuel Roxas, the supervision of the destruction of Commonwealth government currency to prevent its falling into enemyhands.
Rajah Sulaiman III (15581575, the Rajah (King) of Maynila, a Kapampangan and Tagalogkingdom on the region of the Pasig River in Manila. Along with Rajah Sulaiman II and RajahLakan Dula, he was one of three Rajahs who fought the Spaniards during the colonization of thePhilippines in the 16th century.Spanish documents say his people called him “Rajah Mura” or “Rajah Muda” (a Sanskrittitle for a Prince). The Spanish transcription of “Rajah Mura” is Young Rajah, a reference to thefact that he was Rajah Sulaiman II’s nephew and heir to the throne. The Spaniards called him”Rajah Solimano el Mow”.After making peace with the Spaniards in 1571, Rajah Sulaiman III led a revolt againstthem in 1574, which Philippine historians refer to as the first battle of Manila Bay, but is alsoknown as the Sulaiman revolt…
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro (November 30, 1863 May 10, 1897) was a Filipinonationalist and revolutionary. He was a founder and later the supreme leader of the Katipunanmovement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule andstarted the Philippine Revolution. He is considered a de facto national hero of thePhilippines. Bonifacio is also considered by some Filipino historians to be the first presidentof the Philippines, but he is not officially recognized as such.On July 7, 1892, the day after Rizal’s deportation was announced, Bonifacio and othersfounded the Katipunan, or in full, Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ngBayan (“Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children of the Country”).The secret societysought independence from Spain through armed revolt. It was influenced by Freemasonrythrough its rituals and organization, and several members aside from Bonifacio were alsoFreemasons. Within the society Bonifacio used the pseudonym May pag-asa (“There is Hope”).For a time, Bonifacio worked with both the Katipunan and La Liga Filipina. But La LigaFilipina eventually split because less affluent members like Bonifacio lost hope for peacefulreforms, and stopped their monetary aid.Wealthier, more conservative members who stillbelieved in peaceful reforms set up the Cuerpo de Compromisarios, which pledged continuedsupport to the reformists in Spain. The radicals were subsumed into the Katipunan. FromManila, the Katipunan expanded into several provinces, including Batangas, Laguna, Cavite,Bulacan, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija.Most of its members, called Katipuneros, came from thelower and middle classes, with many of its local leaders being prominent figures in theirmunicipalities. At first exclusively male, membership was later extended to females, withBonifacio’s wife Gregoria de Jesús as a leading member.
Apolinario ‘Poly’ Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 May 13, 1903) was a Filipinopolitical philosopher and revolutionary who wrote a constitutional plan for the first Philippinerepublic of 1899-1901, and served as its first prime minister in 1899. In Philippine history texts,he is often referred to as “the Sublime Paralytic”, and as “the Brains of the Revolution.” To hisenemies and detractors, he is referred to as the “Dark Chamber of the President.”Believing that the Reform Movement still had a chance to achieve success, Mabini didnot immediately support the revolution of 1896. When José Rizal was executed in Decemberthat year, however, he changed his mind and gave the revolution his wholehearted suppoIn 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Laguna, Emilio Aguinaldo sent for him. It tookhundreds of men taking turns carrying his hammock to portage Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo,upon seeing Mabini’s physical condition, must have entertained second thoughts in calling forhis help.Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he served as the chief adviserfor General Aguinaldo. He drafted decrees and crafted the first ever constitution in Asia for theFirst Philippine Republic, including the framework of the revolutionary government which wasimplemented in Malolos in 1899.