Life and Work of Rizal
*Why do we need to study history?
*How significant is Rizal to our History?
*What is History then?
1. Chronological records of significant events in the past often with explanations of their cause.
2. Record of the past & study of antiquity
3. The reconstruction of the past based on written records, oral history, cultural artifacts, & folk traditions.
4. The interpretative & imaginative study of the surviving records of the past either written or not in order to determine the meaning & scope of human existence
•Kinds of Sources of History
1. Written or Inscribed Sources
A. Marriage cert. E.Books
B. Gov’t records F. Souvenir Programs
C. Hospital Records G. Business Records
D. School Records H. Diaries/magazines & more
2. Oral Or Visual Sources
A. Tools, weapons, utensils D.Old Structures &Landmarks
B. Photographs E. Heirlooms
C. Arts & crafts F. Skeletal Remains
3. Folklore & Oral Literature
4. Oral History Through Interviews
Significance of Studying History
1. Projecting the conditions of given time and space
2. Projecting the future
3. Explaining the causes of thing or events
4. Promotes nationalism &patriotism
5. Bridging the gap between past & present.
Jose Protacioercado Y Alonso Rizal
*What is your initial perception about Rizal?
*What is the best word can you describe about him?
*For 5 minutes go out & select an object that could best represent Rizal & explain how the said object represented Rizal.
Meaning:1. Rizal- a fields where wheat when cut while still green, sprouts again. 2. Mercado- market
Rizal- 7th child of Teodora Alonso Realonda and Francisco Mercado Rizal.
-born June 19, 1861 in Calamba Laguna.
-baptize in the Catholic Church with Fr. Rufino Collantes as the officiating priest.
-his godfather is Fr. Pedro Cansaňas.
*At the age of three, Rizal learn to read due to the tutorial of his mother.
*His mother taught him to read The Spanish book called the Children’s Friend.
*Being a devoted Catholic his mother named Rizal after St. Joseph.
Don Francisco Mercado (1818-1898)
-Rizal Father was born in Biňan, Laguna.
-He studied Latin and Philosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila.
-He become tenant farmer of the Dominican-owned hacienda.
-Rizal fondly called him in his memoire “a model of father.
Mercado-they were having such name because originally their paternal
Ancestors were merchants
Juan Mercado-Francisco’s father thrice becomes mayor of Biňan
Donya Teodora Alonso Realonda (1826-1911)
-She was educated at the College of Santa Rosa (a well known college for girls in the city during that time.
-It was from Donya Teodora that Rizal inherited his passion in rhetoric and literature.
Lorenzo Alberto Alonso- father Of Teodora deputy for the Phil. in Spanish
Jose Alberto- brother of Teodora who was educated abroad & could speak
A knight in the order of Isabel the Catholic
Manuel de Quintos- grandfather of Teodora who become well-known
Lawyer of Manila.
Having educated parents it is main reason why Rizal was also greatly inclined to education and seeking of knowledge.
Paciano who is 10yrs older than him.
-considered by Rizal as the Noblest Filipinos
-one of de la Torre’s young generation s of liberals
-housemate & disciple of Burgos
-Rizal considered him more than a brother and treated him a second father
*Concepcion died at a very young age (3yrs old). Since she was next to Rizal so they were close and her death was considered as the first sorrow of Rizal.
•On his Paternal side:Rizal’s great great grand father, Domingo Lamco is a Chinese immigrant from Fukien City
•On his maternal side: his great great grand father Eugenio Ursua has Japanese ancestry.
Indication That Rizal’s Family Is Rich…
1. Big Stone House
2. Could afford lavish party
3. Have big &voluminous library
4. Could Hire Aya/maid
5. Have horse carriage
6. Could afford to educate their children
Childhood in Calamba Laguna
•Rizal Rizal had many beautiful childhood memories in his native town. Having a happy home, morally upright parents and scenic and panoramic town is enough to mold him into an upright citizen
• Calamba was a hacienda town, which belonged to the Dominican order. Rizal love his town so much that at the age of 15 he compose a poem that describe and reminisce his youthful years in Calamba. The poem was entitled Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo (in Memory of my town)
Earliest Childhood Memories
•Bec Because Rizal was sickly and undersized child, he was given the tenderest care by his parents, His father built a little nipa cottage in the garden for him to play on the daytime. They even employed a kind old woman as an aya (nurse maid) to look after his comfort. His aya also related him stories regarding fairy tales aswang, nuno at tikbalang. •Born Born and bred in a wholesome atmosphere of Catholicism, Rizal grew up a devoted Catholic. He take part in the family prayers read the bible, go to church, take part in novenas and join in any religious activities, at a very young age, he was very serious that he even mock as Manong Jose. He also visits and hears the sound philosophy of Fr. Leoncio Lopez.
Events that awaken Rizal from Spanish brutalities
1. The execution OF GOMBURZA IN Feb 17, 1872
Saldua- the witness who incriminated GomBurza but was also executed
2. The imprisonment of his mother
Don Antonio Vivencio- mayor who arrested his mother as accomplice of
Jose Alberto in poisoning the latter’s wife.
-he later beg Donya Teodora’s forgiveness
Don Francisco Macaida & Manuel Marzano- two famous lawyers of Manila
that defended his mother
Donya Teodora- freed after 2 ½ years in prison
-symbolized the case of Sisa in Noli
•Artis Artistic talents can be considered genuine to Rizal. At the age of 5 he began to make sketches with his pencil to would in clay and wax which attracted his fancy. During his boyhood in Calamba, he was requested by the mayor to paint the spoil religious banner. He painted in oil colors a new banner that delighted the town’s folk because it was better than the original. •Ther There is an interesting anecdote about Rizal: (One day when he was about six years old his sister laugh at him for spending so much time making those images rather than participating in their games. He answer them “All right laugh at me now! Someday when I die, people will make monuments and images of me.
•Sinc Since early boyhood, Rizal often scribbled verses on loose sheets of paper on the textbook of his sister, Donya Teodora, who is a lover of literature notice this inclination an d encourage him to write poetry. •It w It was in his Mother that Rizal inherited his passion in poetry. That’s why, through the guidance of his mother, he was able to write his first poem at the age of 8. The poem was all about the love of native language and it was entitled “Sa Aking Mga Kabata / to My Fellow Children)”
At the age of 8 Rizal was also able to wrote his first dramatic work which was a tagalong comedy, It was stage in Calamba festival a Goberndorcillo from Paete happen to witness it. He like it so much that he purchased the manuscript and stage it in Paete during its town fiesta.
•In At In Ateneo, fr. Villaclara urge him to stop communing w/ the muses
But it was Fr. Sanchez who inspire him to continue writing.
Early Education in Calamba and Biňan
•Riza Rizal’s first teacher was his mother. His mom taught him the alphabet and prayers even at the age of three. But as Rizal grow older, his parents employed a private tutors to give him lesson at home. His first formal teachers were;
1. Lucas Padua
3. Leon Monroy
By June 1869 Paciano enrolled to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. In Biňan Rizal’s painting was greatly develop because he spent much of his time to the studio of Juancho, an old painter who is also the father in law Justiniano Aquino Cruz. Although Rizal learn a lot in Biňan yet he don’t have a happy life in Biňan There are a lot of boys who bully him esp. those who got jealous of his academic excellence, that’s why Rizal was so relief when he was allowed by his parents to go home. At last by Dec. 17, 1870 after a year and a half of schooling, he left Biňan.
•Pedr Pedro-son of Justiniano who always bully Rizal
Leandro-a nuisance grandson of his aunt in Biňan
Margarita-Rizal’s spinster cousin in Biňan
Arcadia-a young tomboy niece in Biňan who treated him like real brother
*How was the change of environment develop Rizal’s nationalism?
*Cite anything that would illustrate how Rizal’s nationalism was develop.
*How effective was the educational system of Ateneo?
1.Form 2 groups composed of 3 members each group
2.Group A should fill in one row in the left side of the TIC –TAC- TOE w/ letter “J”
3.Group B should fill in one row in the right side of the TIC-TAC-TOE w/ letter “R”
1.Form 2 groups w/ 5 members each group
2.Each group should fill in one line of the TIC-TAC-TOE either vertically, horizontally, or diagonally.
3.The first group to accomplished the TIC-TAC-TOE will receive a prize.
Scholastic triumphs at Ateneo de Manila
•On J June 10, 1872- Rizal went to Manila & took the entrance exam on Christian Doctrine, Latin & reading at San Juan de Letran. But when he go back to Manila, his father who want him to study in Letran decided to enroll Rizal in Ateneo.
•Aten Ateneo was formerly the Escuela Pia (Charity
School), a school for poor boys in Manila which was established by the city government in 1817. The Jesuit was expelled from the Phil in 1768. When they returned Manila in 1859, they were given mgt of Ateneo Municipal which later become Ateneo de Manila. The Jesuit are explended educator that Ateneo acquire prestige as excellent college for boys.
•At 1 1st , the college registrar of Ateneo, Fr. Magin Fernando was hesitant to admit Rizal for two reasons:
•He was late in registration
•He l took sickly & undersized for his age.
•But through the help of Xerxes Burgos, nephew of Fr. Burgos, Rizal was admitted in Ateneo.
Advantages of Jesuits Educational System:
1.More advance than other colleges during that time
2. train the student by rigid discipline &religious instruction
3. stimulated the intellectual capacity of the student by healthy competition
Two Groups of Students in Ateneo:
1. Roman Empire-interno/boarder; w/red banner
2. Carthaginian Empire-externo/ non-boarder; blue banner
Ranks of Students in an Empire
5. Standard Bearer
*Aside from the rank in each group, the two groups, were also in constant competition for supremacy, in the class. Each group has a banner and will be place on different parts of their room defending on their number of wins and once group will be defeating for several times, the bsanner will be change with a figure of a donkey.
*Although Rizal admires the System of Ateneo yet it was here where he start to feel the discrimination of the Indio. The racial discrimination intensifies his desire to excel in his scholastic performance.
*Rizal’s first Professor in Ateneo was Fr. Jose Bech, As a new comer Rizal was placed at the bottom of the class under the Carthaginians since he was non-boarder or externo. But at the end of the month, he became the “emperor” or the brightest pupil in the whole class.
*During their vacant time Rizal took private lessons in sta. Isabel College, on Spanish. Making him well verse in Spanish. But during the 2nd of Rizal’s 1st year in Ateneo
*He wasn’t able to maintain he academic supremacy because he resented some remarks of his professor. Likewise, the imprisonment of his mother affected his academic performance.
his 2nd year in Ateneo, Rizal has several new classmate and during this time he was able to regain his class leadership as emperor and receive a gold medal, during summer, Rizal visited his mother and it was this them when Rizal made a prophecy that he’s mother would be release within three months. And the prophecy was true because barely three months pass, Donya Teodora was set free.
Teenage Interest in Reading
•Summer in1874, Rizal began to take interest in reading novels & books such as the:
1.Count of Monte Cristo- by Alexander Dumas
2. Universal History by Cesar Cantu
3.Travels in the Phil. by Feodor Jagor, a German scientist & traveler who visited the Phil. in 1859-1860.
Rizal was impressed in Jagor’s account due to:
A. Jagor’s keen observation of the defects of Spanish colonization.
B. Jagor’s prophecy that Spain would lose Phil. & America would come to succeed her as colonizer.
•In his Third year in Ateneo is not as good as his previous years. However, all her grades are excellent but he got only one medal.• •4th year in Ateneo: Rizal become an interno & one of his Professor in this year is Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez, a great educator & Scholar who inspired young Rizal to Study harder & write poetry. He becomes admirer of Rizal while Rizal considers him as best teacher in Ateneo. Rizal described him in his memoirs as the “model of of uprightness, earnestness & love for the advancement of his pupils“. Inspired by father Sanchez, Rizal topped all his classmates in all subjects & won 5 medals at the end of the
Last Year in Ateneo (1876-1877)
•Because Rizal become the most brilliant Atenian of his time, he was truly pride of the Jesuits •He o obtained highest grades in all his subjects •Mar March 23, 1877- the Commencement Day of Rizal in Ateneo where he finish the degree if Bachelor of Arts with high honor.
•Congregation of Mary •Apo Apostleship of prayer •Aca Academy of Science Literature •AcaAcademy of Natural Science
Agustine Saez- teacher in painting
Romualdo de Jesus- teacher in sculpture
Image of Virgin Mary- Sculptural work of Rizal carved on a piece of
-made by Rizal upon the request of Fr. Lleonart
St. Eustace, the Martyr- dramatic work of Rizal in Ateneo upon the request of Fr. Sanchez.
Segunda Katigbak- boardmate of Olympia who become 1st love of Rizal at the age of 16. They studied at Colegio de La Concordia
but the romance did not bloom because she was engage to her
Uncle, Manuel Luz.
Mariano Katigbak-brother of Segunda who is a friend of Rizal
Don Francisco & Paciano wanted Rizal to pursue higher ladder of learning
Donya Teodora opposed Rizal’s further education because she is afraid that Rizal might will be beheaded by the Spanish authority.
April 1877- Rizal matriculated in the University of Santo Tomas
Reasons Why Rizal Took Up Philosophy & Letters
1. He is not certain as to what course to take
2. His father like it
Reason For Taking Medicine
1. It is the advise of the Rector of Ateneo
2. He wanted to cure his mother
Whil e studying in UST, Rizal also took up vocational course leading ti Perito Agrimensor (expert surveyor).He excelled in all his subject & obtained gold medal in Agriculture & topography. He passed the exam in surveying but his title was issued only in Nov. 25, 1881 since he was underage at that time.
Romances W/ other Girls
Inspite of his busy schedule, Rizal has still time for love
1. Miss L- a lady in Calamba but the romance died out because his father don’t like the family of Ms. L
2.Leonor Valenzuela (Orang)- from Pagsanhan, Laguna
-Rizal used to sent to her love notes using invisible ink
& taught the technique of reading the notes.
3. Leonor Rivera- Rizal’s 1st cousin from Camiling, Laguna
- beautiful daughter of Antonio Rivera, landlord-uncle of
Rizal in Casa Tomasina. Rizal & Leonor become engage. In
Her letter to Rizal, Leonor signed her name as Taimis in
Order to conceal her identity from their parents & friends.
Three Most Cherished Girlfriends of Rizal
1. Leonor Rivera
3. Josephine Bracken
While Rizal was still a student of Ateneo, he won a prize in writing a poem entitled “A La Juventud Filipina” ( To the Filipino Youth). This contest
was sponsored by the Liceo Artistico Literario (Artistic- Literary Lyceum. This contest is intended for the natives & mestizo & the prize won by Rizal is a silver pen.
1880-Riza’s El Consejo De Los Dioses won a bust of Cervantes..This contest was sponsored by Liceo-Artistico
Companerismo-Organization established by Rizal in UST
-Members were called Companion of Jehu.
Reasons Why Rizal Hate UST
1. Filipino Students are racially discriminated
2. Dominican Friars are hostile to him
3. The educational system are obsolete and repressive
Chapter XIII (The Class in Physics)- part of Fili that illustrate how Filipino students are discriminated as in the case of Placido Penitente
After finishing the 4th year medical course in UST, Rizal decided to go abroad to fulfill his secret mission.
To observed keenly the life & culture, Language & customs, industries & commerce, & government & laws of European nation in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from the Spanish tyrants.
People Who Know About the Plan Departure of Rizal…
1. Lucia. Neneng, Paciano
2. Mateo Evangelista. Jose maria cecilio “Chenggoy”, Pedro Paterno
3. Antonio Rivera, valenzuela Family, Jesuit Fathers
Jose Mercado- a cousin from Biňan
-identity used by Rizal to maintain the secrecy of his departure.
May3, 1882- Rizal departed Phil. w/ the 356 php & boarded on a ship
Salvadora w/ 16 Passengers. Saturnina gave him ring to be pawn in cases ha needed money.
May 9,1882- Rizal reached Singapore. He observe has flourishing culture &
Trade. In Singapore, he stayed at de la Paz Hotel.
May 11,1882- he boarded in Djenmah from Singapore
May 17, 1882- reached Ceylon(Sri-Lanka)- he has an impression that the
Place is lonely, quiet & sad. From Colombo, the next stopover of
Rizal is in Suez Canal ( made by Ferdinand de Lesseps).
Rizal landed in Italy & visited Mt. Vesuvius & Castle of Selmo. Then, he went to Marseilles, France where he visited the Chateau d’if & finally proceed to Barcelona.
June 16, 1882- Rizal arrived in Barcelona, the 2nd largest city of Spain.
Rizal has bad impression of Barcelona because he happened to stay on the most ugly side of the City. Later, he changes his perception about the city & come to like the city due to its freer & liberal environment.
Las Ramblas St.- most famous street in Barcelona where Rizal enjoy Promenading.
Plaza de Cataluňa- Rizal was given party by his former classmates in Ateneo Rizal noticed that the Filipinos in Spain are extravagant & vicious.Amor Propio- an essay written by Rizal in Barcelona. He send it to Teodoro Moran & published in Diariong Tagalog, the 1st bilingual newspaper in Manila. The Publisher was so impressed that he urged Rizal to write another article. Rizal wrote another article entitled Los Viajes.
Bad News Receive by Rizal In Barcelona
•Cholera that ravage Manila & cuase the death of his brother-in-law
•Leonor Rivera becomes thinner & thinner due to the absence of Rizal.
Rizal Decided to transfer in Madrid due to ff.
•To heed the advice of Paciano •To take medical course in the capital of Spain
•Madrid is the political, economic, cultural, & social center of Spain
Rizal enrolled two courses in Universidad Central de Madrid
•Medicine •Philosophy & Letters
*Rizal also studied painting/ sculpture in Academy of Fine Arts of San
Fernando. & took private lessons in French, German, & English.
*He also practice Fencing & shooting in Hall of Arms of Sanz Y Carbonnell. In Phil. Rizal learned fencing from his Tio Manuel.
Rizal lived a Spartan life in Madrid. He is frugal in spending his money. He never wasted his money on gambling, wine, & woman like the other Filipino in Madrid but he got addicted in lottery. He spend most of his time in reading, writing & reunion w/ other Fiipino in the house of Paterno brothers.
Romance w/ Conzuelo
Conzuelo- is the daughter of Don Pablo Ortiga Y Perez, former Mayor of Manila. She was fascinated of Rizal’s splendid talent & noble character.
•Rizal made a poem for her entitled “ A La Seňorita C.O. y P. but
Before their closeness blossom into love, he back out for two reasons:
1. He was still engage to Leonor Rivera
2. Eduardo de Lete was madly in love w/ Conzuelo.
1882- Rizal joined the Circulo-Hispano Filipino, a society of Spaniards &
Filipinos in Madrid:
1. Pedro Alejandro Paterno
2. Gregorio Sancianco-published in1881 Treaties on Phil. Progress, a
Collection of economic, political, & administrative studies.
3. Juan Luna- high seas pilot turn painter
4. Melecio Figueroa- engraver
5. Felix R. Hidalgo- paintor
6. Manuael Zaragoza
7. Esteban Villanueva
8. Graciano Lopez-Jaena-
9. Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Spolarium of Juan Luna-depicting fallen gladiator & Christians Virgins
Exposed to the Mobs of Hidalgo won in Paris Exhibition
Pedro Paterno- author of novel Ninay & Sampaguita
Juan Atayde-moving spirit of Circulo-Hispano Filipino
1883- for the 1st time Rizal visited the tourist spots in Paris & concluded that Paris is one of the most expensive cities of Europe.
Three Costliest Cities in the World
•Paris, France •New York, US •Tokyo, Japan
*Rizal joined in Masonry in Europe. He enter in Lodge Acacia & later in lodge Solidaridad & become a master Mason in Nov. 15, 1890.
Spanish Liberals in Spain
•Miguel Morayta- statesman, professor, historian, & writer.
•Francisco Pi y Margal- journalist, statesman, & former President of short-lived Spanish republic. •Emilio Junoy- Journalist & member of Spanish Cortes •Juan Ruiz Zorilla- former parliamentarian
Financial Worries due to:
•Cheap price of sugar in world market •Failure of farm production due to locust
Nov. 20-22, 1884- Rizal was involved in demonstration in Spain.
*Rizal finished his degree of Licentiate in medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 21, 1884 but he was not awarded the diploma because:
•He did not present his thesis •He did not pay the corresponding pay
*Rizal also finished Philosophy & Letters & was awarded w/ degree of Licentiate in Philosophy & Letters by Universidad Central de Madrid w/ excellent rating
*Rizal went to Paris to specialized eye treatment
*In Berlin, Rizal top German Scientist like:
•Dr. Feodor Jagor 3. Dr. Hans Meyer •Dr. Adolf Meyer 4. Dr. Rudolf Virchow
*Rizal work as assistant of Louis de Weckert, leading ophthalmology in France.
*Rizal work under top German Opthamologist, Otto Becker
Feb. 3, 1886-Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, Germany
Dr. Karl Ullmer- a pastor who become good friend of Rizal
July 3, 1886- Rizal wrote his 1st letter to Blumentritt
Ferdinand Blumentritt-Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria
-An Austrian ethnologist who are interested in Phil. languages
-become bestfriend of Rizal
Aritmetica- book given by Rizal to Blumentritt
-written by Rufino Baltazar Hernandez & publish in Spanish & English.
Aug. 14, 1886- Rizal arrived in Leipzig & able to know:
1.Prof. Friedrich Ratzel- famous German Historian
2.Dr. Hans Meyer-German anthropologist
In Europe Rizal met:
1. Adolf Meyer, the Director Of Anthropological ðnographic Museum
2. Dr. Joest-German Geographer
3. Rudolf Virchow-German Anthropologist
4. Hans Virchow-Son of Rudolf; Prof. of Descriptive Anatomy
5. Karl Earnest Shweigger-famost German Opthalmologist
6. Feodor Jagor-German Scientest Traveller; Author of Travels in The Philippines that foretells the downfall of Spain &the coming of America
Reasons Why Rizal LOve Europe
1. Absence of Racial Prejudice
2. Rich scientific atmosphere
*Jagor & Meyer recommended Rizal to become member of Anthropological & ethnological Society.
*Virchow-invited Rizal to give lecture before the Ethnographic Society of Berlin.
Rizal Stayed Longer In Berlin
1. To published his Noli
2. Associate w/ German Scientest
3. To Study further opthalmology
4. To observe the economic and political situation of Germany
5. To study science and other languages…
*Rizal took private lessons in Languages under Professor of French, Madame Lucie Cerdole.
*In his letter to Trinidad, Rizal has high regard & admiration to German Woman because they are serious, diligent, educated, &friendly.
Two German Culture That Greatly Fascinate Rizal
1. Chrismas Celebration
2. Self Introduction of a Visitor in a party
Rizal’s darkest winter in Berlin (1886)
-he lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba
-he already pawn Saturnina’s ring
-He ate only once a day, & satisfy himself w/ bread & water or cheap soup.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- written by Harriet Beecher
-portrays the pathetic condition of the unfortunate Negroes & the brutalities of the American slave owners.
-inspire Rizal to write novel that would depict the miseries of the Filipino under the Spaniards.
*During the reunion of Filipinos in 1884 at Paterno’s house, they plan to write novel but it was not materialized because almost all are interested to write about women.
*1884-he began writing the novel in Madrid, Paris & finally finished it in Germany.
Maximo Viola- lend Rizal money for the printing of he Noli
Elias & Salome- the deleted chapter of the Noli to minimize the printing Expenses.
-printing shop w/c charge 300 for the 2000 copies of Noli
*While observing the life of the people in Germany & searching for cheap printing press, Rizal was suspected as French spy
.After the copies of the Noli released, Rizal sent coies to:
1. BLUMENTRITT 4. Mariano ponce
2. Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor 5. Felix R. Hidalgo
*As a signed of gratitude to Viola, he give the original copy of this work w/ an inscription: “ To my dear Friend, M. Viola, who first Read & Appreciate My work”
May 13, 1887- Rizal’s 1st meeting w/ Blumentritt
Rosa- Blumentritt’s wife
Blumentritt’s ChIldren were: Conrad, Dolores, & Fritz.
*For 11 months, Rizal learned to speak German.
* After visiting Blumentritt, he tour the whole Europe.
*After his travel in Europe & more than five years stay Rizal decided to went Home.
People Who Oppose Rizal’s Plan of Going Home…
3. Silvestre Ubaldo-brother in Law
Reasons Why Rizal Wanted To Go Home
1. To inquire why Leonor Rivera remain silent
2. To operate his mother’s eye
3. To serve his people who has been long oppressed by the Spaniards
4. To find out how the Noli affected the Spaniards
July 3, 1887- Rizal boarded on Djemnah going back to the Phil.
Aug. 5, 1887- arrived Manila
Aug. 8, 1887- Reached Calamba
Rizal’s accomplishment in Calamba;
1. Established a medical clinic
Donya Teodora- his 1st patient
Dr. Uliman- he was called as such because he came from Germany. In fact, he was suspected as spy of Rizal.
2. Open gymnasium for young folks where he introduced European sports such as gymnastics, fencing, & shooting to discourage them from gambling
3. Actively participate in town’s activity such as landscaping & translated German poem into Tagalog.
Gen, Emilio Terrero-called Rizal to Malacaňang due to his Noli
*Upon his visit to Manila, he visited his former teachers in Ateneo
•Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez •Fr. Jose Bech •Fr. Faura- Prophecied that Rizal might lose his head because of the Noli
Terrero- was convinced & satisfied of Rizal’s explanation. He assigned guard for Rizal.
Jose Taviel De Andrade- young lieutenant who became guard & buddy of Rizal.
-come from a noble family & shared a lot of common traits w/ Rizal such as:
•Being cultured •Painting talent
A linguist who could speak English, Spanish, & French
Rizal’s powerful enemy who insist that his novel is subversive:
1. Msgr. Pedro Payo- archbishop of Manila
-He sent copy to the Board of Censor & the committee found out that the novel is:
a. heretic, impious, & scandalous in the religious orders
b. anti-patriotic & subversive to public order
c. injurious to the Spanish government.
*But Terrero knew that the Dominicans were bias against Rizal
2. Father Salvador Font-head of the Permanent Commission of Censorship that recommended that importation, reproduction, & Circulation of Noli is Absolutely prohibited.
*While Rizal was in Calamba, a genuine friendship blossom between him & Andrade. But the happy days of Rizal in Calamba was marred by:
1. Death of his older sister, Olympia
2. The groundless tales that circulated that he is a German spy, agent of Bismarck, witch, mason, protestant, and a sound beyond salvation.
Calamba’s Agrarian Trouble
*When the lands of the Dominican Friars in Calamba was investigated by the government, it was Rizal who urge the people to list their grievances.
*Rizal received various threats from his enemies. They even convince Terrero to deport Rizal. But the latter refused. However, he advised Rizal to leave because he could not guarantee Rizal’s safety.
Reasons Why Rizal Left Philippines
1. His presence in Calamba might jeopardized the safety of his relatives and friends
2. He could fight better in foreign country
Hymn to Labor- a poem written by Rizal before he left Calamba upon the Request of his friend from Lipa, Batangas.
-it stressed the importance of economy in the stability of the country.
Feb. 3, 1888-Rizal left for Hong Kong after 6 months stayed in Calamba
*He was welcome by Filipino expatriates in Hong Kong such as:
1. Jose Maria. Basa
2. Balbino Mauricio
3. Manuel Yriarte
Jose Sainz De Varanda- former secretary of Terrero who shadowed Rizal’s movement in Hong Kong.
-commission by the Spaniards to spy Rizal’s activity
*In Hong Kong, Rizal studied Chinese life, language, drama, & customes.
Japan-land of Cherry Blossoms
-Rizal stayed here for almost 1.5 years
-He stayed Japan for several reasons
1. He was enchanted by the natural beauty of Japan
2. He was fascinated by the different shrines of Japan
3. He was enchanted by the charming manner of Japan
4. He fall in love with Seiko-Usui
Feb. 28, 1888-arrived in Yokohama & stayed in Grand Hotel
Juan Perez Caballero-secretary of Spanish legation who invited Rizal to stay at Spanish Legation.
-he was instructed to monitor Rizal’s activity
Reason Why Rizal Stayed in Spanish Litigation
1. to economized
2. to show the Spaniards that he hide nothing
While in Japan, Rizal studied Japanese drama, arts, music, & judo. He loves everything about Japan except the popular mode of transportation by means of rickshaw drawn by men
Seiko-Usei=served as guide & tutor of Rizal in Japanese language
-a 23 yrs old Samurai daughter
-more than sweet*heart, she served as Rizal’s guide & interpreter but their happy moments was cut short due to his responsibility of redeeming his people against the tyrants.
April 13, 1888- Rizal bound for US boarding on Belgic
*Rizal’s happy interlude in Japan lasted for 45 days
*Due to Seiko-Usei’s great love for Rizal, she married only in 1897 to a British teacher in Tokyo, named Alfred Charlton & they got daughter named, Yukiro.
Tetcho Suehiro- fellow passenger of Rizal in Belgic
-become good friend & admirer of Rizal
-a fighting Japanese novelist & champion of human rights
April 28, 1888-Rizal for the first time saw America
*Rizal observed that the liberty for the Americans is only for the whites
-he was disappointed for the lack of racial equality in America.
*After visiting America, Rizal decide to proceed in London
Why Rizal Ztayed in London
1. To annotate Morga’s work
2. London is the safest place to carry out his fight
3. To improve his knowledge in English language
Rizal’s Various Activity in London
1. Engage various correspondence with Relatives and Friends
2.Annotate the work of Morga
3. Romance w/ Gertrude Becketts
4. Engage in Filipiniana study
5. Contributed various articles in Soli
Dr. Antonio M. Regidor- a lawyer exile in 1872
-Rizal stayed w/ them for several weeks
*In London, Rizal boarded w/ Beckett family
Gertrude, Gettie, Tottie- daughter of Beckett who has intimate relation w/ Rizal.
Reinhold Rost-librarian of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
-authority in Malayan Languages & customs
Bad News Received By Rizal From LOndon
1. Furious attack on Rizal’s novel by Senator Salamanca, Vida,Wenceslao Retana & Pablo Feced
2. A friend of Rizal, Laureano Viado was imprison because a copy of Noli was recovered from his house.
3. Persecution of the Patriots who signed the anti-friar Petition
4. The exile of Manuel Hidalgo(brother-in-law) to Bohol
5.Persecution of Calamba tenant
More info at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Rizal